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Basic Structure Of C Program With Example

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In this article we will look into basic structure of C program. we will understand the six fundamental building blocks that comprise a complete C program, providing examples and explanations of each component. Whether you are learning C for the first time or looking to strengthen your foundational knowledge, this article will provide an excellent introduction to writing properly structured C code.

So, let’s get started.

Basic Structure Of C Program TeachingBee
Basic Structure Of C Program

The basic structure of C program consists of 6 sections these are:

  1. Documentation
  2. Preprocessor Section
  3. Definition
  4. Global Declaration
  5. Main() Function
  6. Sub Programs

Let’s understand each of these section in detail using examples:

Basic Structure Of C Program

The structure of C program is organised into distinct sections, each serving a specific purpose, including documentation, preprocessor directives, definitions, global declarations, the main function, and subprograms, contributing to a well-organised and executable codebase.Let’s understand each in detail.

Documentation Section

Documentation section in C program at the beginning of the program provides details about what the program does, who wrote it, version info etc. It makes it easier for someone else reading your code to understand your program.

/*
Program: Add two numbers  
Author: John Doe
Date: 01/01/2023
Description: This program takes two integer inputs from the user and prints their sum
*/

The documentation section is not a formal section in C, but it’s good practice to include comments at the beginning of your program to provide information about the program, its purpose, the author, creation date, and any other relevant details.

Good documentation should have:

  • Purpose of program
  • Author details (name, contact info etc.)
  • Date created/updated
  • Version info
  • Details on modules/functions
  • Input and output details
  • Any assumptions or dependencies

Preprocessor Section

Preprocessor section has preprocessor directives that tell the compiler to include header files. Header files allow you to access predefined functions.This section starts with the # symbol and includes preprocessor directives. These directives are processed before the actual compilation of the code.

#include <stdio.h>

Commonly used preprocessor directives:

DirectivePurpose
#includeIncludes header files containing definitions of functions and variables to be used in the program.
#pragmaIssues special commands directly to the compiler to control compilation. Allows enabling/disabling warnings etc.
#undefUndefines an existing #define macro. Allows selectively undefining macros that were defined earlier.
#if, #ifdef, #ifndefAllows conditional compilation. Code blocks can be compiled selectively based on conditional expressions involving defined macros. Useful for debugging.
Commonly used preprocessor directives

Definition Section

This section defines symbolic constants using #define. It is used to assign meaningful names to values that enhance readability.

#define MAX_SIZE 100

Global Declaration

The global declaration section contains declarations of global variables and functions that can be accessed from anywhere in the program.

int sum; //global variable

void add(); //function prototype

Main() function

This is the most important section and contains the main logic of the program. The main function is the entry point of a C program. It is mandatory for every C program and is where the program begins its execution.

int main() {
  // code
  return 0;  
}

Sub Programs / User-defined functions

Sub programs refer to functions other than main that you define in your program. These functions can be called from main or other functions.This section contains additional functions defined by the programmer for modular programming.

// Function definition
void myFunction() {
    // Code for the function
}

int main() {
    myFunction();  // Calling the function
    return 0;
}

Putting it all together, a simple C program might look like this:

/* Section 1: Documentation */
/* This is a simple C program that demonstrates the basic structure */
/* Author: John Doe */
/* Date: January 1, 2023 */

/* Section 2: Preprocessor Section */
#include <stdio.h>

/* Section 3: Definition */
#define PI 3.14159
#define MAX_SIZE 100

/* Section 4: Global Declaration */
int globalVariable;  // Declaration of a global variable
void myFunction();   // Function declaration

/* Section 5: Main() Function */
int main() {
    // Code goes here
    myFunction();  // Calling the function
    return 0;
}

/* Section 6: Sub Programs */
// Function definition
void myFunction() {
    // Code for the function
}

Compilation and execution of a C program

For Windows Using MinGW

  • Write your C program and save it (e.g., “myprogram.c”).
  • Open Command Prompt and Navigate to Program Directory:
cd path\to\your\program
  • If you don’t have MinGW installed, download and install it. Ensure that the MinGW/bin directory is added to your system’s PATH.
  • Compile C Program using following command
gcc -o outputFileName yourProgramFileName.c
  • Run Compiled Program. If your compiled program is named, for instance, “outputFileName.exe,” you would run:
outputFileName.exe
  • Check the Command Prompt for program output.
  • If needed, debug errors, modify the C code, and repeat compilation and execution.

Adjust paths and file names as necessary based on your specific program and directory structure.

For Linux

Checkout detailed steps on how to compile C program in Ubuntu here

Key Takeaways

  • A C program generally consists of six sections: documentation, the preprocessor directives, definitions, global declarations, the main() function, and user-defined sub programs/functions.
  • The documentation provides high-level details about the program to aid future maintenance and updates.
  • The preprocessor directives allow you to include external libraries and set compilation conditions.
  • Definitions establish symbolic constants for better readability, while global declarations enable the sharing of variables and functions across code.
  • The main() function houses the key program logic and serves as the initial entry point when execution begins. Sub programs compartmentalize code into reusable modules with discrete tasks.

Checkout more C Tutorials here.

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FAQ

What is the significance of the main() function in a C program?

What is the purpose of the preprocessor directives #define and #include in C?

Why is the order of sections (Documentation, Preprocessor, Definition, etc.) important in a C program?

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